After five days training, we are entering the distance learning phase. A team named “Kristal AACE 2014” was build to finish the project. The goals are passing AACE Certification test in the first attempt and returning on training investment (Roti).
1. Problem Definition
As any other new team, Kristal AACE 2014 face problem caused by different member’s background. It needs time, process and good leadership to make the team solid.
2. Identify the Possible Alternative
Bruce Tuckman introduce the phrase “forming, storming, norming and performing” in 1965. The names of the stages are indicating the process occurs during each phase. Different stage needs different leadership. The leadership approaches are similar to the Hersey and Blanchard’s Model as follow :
- Telling, leaders tell their people what to do and how to do it
- Selling, Leaders provide information and direction, but there’s more communication with followers.
- Participating, Leaders focus more on the relationship and less on direction.
- Delegating, Leaders pass most of the responsibility onto the team.
It is important to know team’s stage and what type of leadership should be applied, as the wrong leadership style can produce negative impact to the team performance.
Picture 1. Tuckman vs Hersey and Blanchard’s Model
3. Development of the Outcome for Alternative
The pictures below shows the stages change versus time and how the leadership style is changing following the team’s level of maturity.
Figure 2. Productivity vs Time on Each Stage
In order to accomodate different opinions, Delphi technique with P70 will be choosen for further analyses.
4. Selection Criteria
To know team’s path position, a survey was conducted which consist of 32 questions developed by Donald Clark. Eight responses were received out of nine members. The data collected will be used to determine a score associated to the Tuckman’s phase model. The highest score shows the most likely stage of the group.
5. Analysis and Comparison of Alternative
Here are the survey data :
Tabel 1. Team Data Survey
Tabel 2. Performing Phase Probability Distribution Selection
As shown on the table 2, the team position is in Performing Stage.
6. Selection of the Preferred Alternative
Result in Table 2 shows that the team has a highest score for Performing Phase. As per Figure 1, the matching leadership for performing stage is Delegating. The leader should give trust, empowerment and delegate the team’s responsibility.
7. Performance Monitoring and the Post Evaluation of Result
Even though the group already in the Performing Phase, Program and Project Managers should monitor how the team performs by regular reporting, tracking against program, project schedules, milestones and targets. Another survey could be periodically carried out to check on how the team member perceptions change over time.
Chapman , Alan. (n.d). Leadership Theories. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/leadership-theories.htm
Chapman , Alan. (n.d). Tuckman Forming Storming Norming Performing Model. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm
Arapahoe community college.Teaching Resources-Groups-Tuckman & Jensen Model. Retrieved from http://acc.ccconline.org/wiki/Teaching_Resources_-_Groups_-_Tuckman_and_Jensen_Model